- Gauss's Method
- , DEGAUSSKarl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855), German mathematician and scientist, was one of the three greatest mathematicians of who ever lived, the others being Archimedes and Newton. (Of course, Gauss lived about a century before Albert Einstein.) Gauss's outstanding work includes the discovery of the method of least squares, the discovery of non-Euclidean geometry, and important contributions to the theory of numbers.At the age of three this mathematical genius called attention to some errors in his father's insurance fund bookkeeping. At ten he was able to sum up, independently, complex arithmetical series. At school he showed little of his precocious talent until age nine. The master set forth a series of numbers in arithmetical progression in what appeared to be a complicated problem. Although Gauss had never been taught the method for solving this problem, he turned in his slate within seconds. At the end of the period there was a pile of slates on top of Gauss's, all with incorrect answers. The master was stunned to see that Gauss had the correct answer. When he was not yet twenty-one years of age, and still a student at Gottingen, he established proof of the fundamental theorem of algebra, which had baffled mathematicians since Euclid's day.Gauss was not sure whether his major interest was philology or mathematics. He chose the latter in 1796 when he discovered how to construct a regular polygon of seventeen sides, using only a compass and a straightedge. By 1824 he had concluded that it was possible to develop geometry based on the denial of the postulate. Gauss developed the theory of elliptical functions.Gauss's greatest treatise, a book on the theory of numbers titled Disquisitiones arithmeticae, established his reputation in 1801. On January 1, 1801, Giuseppe Piazzi discovered the asteroid Ceres. After a short time, it was lost in the sun's rays. Recalling his method of least squares, Gauss computed the orbit of Ceres. At the end of the year, the asteroid was clearly seen in the position he had predicted. Gauss's method of computing orbits is still in use today.Gauss originated the Gauss curvature, the reciprocal of the product of the two principal radii of curvature of a surface at any of its points, and also the Gauss curve, a probability curve. He originated the Gaussian distribution, a theoretical frequency distribution used in statistics that is bell-shaped, symmetrical, and of infinite extent. The Gauss meter indicates the strength of a magnetic field at any point directly in gauss.Because of his brilliant mind, science can now wrestle successfully with the mathematical theory of electricity. Gauss was also responsible for studies of magnetism and electricity, and the measurement unit of magnetic induction. A magnetic unit in electricity is named for him. The German magnetic mines used during World War II took a heavy toll on British shipping. The magnetism of an approaching ship detonated the mines lying on the bottom of the sea. A countermeasure— neutralizing the ship's magnetic field—was created and was called degaussing.
Dictionary of eponyms. Morton S. Freeman. 2013.
Look at other dictionaries:
Gauss pseudospectral method — The Gauss Pseudospectral Method (abbreviated GPM ) is a direct transcription method for discretizing a continuous optimal control problem into a nonlinear program (NLP). The Gauss pseudospectral method differs from several other pseudospectral… … Wikipedia
Gauss–Seidel method — The Gauss–Seidel method is a technique used to solve a linear system of equations. The method is named after the German mathematicians Carl Friedrich Gauss and Philipp Ludwig von Seidel. The method is an improved version of the Jacobi method. It… … Wikipedia
Generalized Gauss–Newton method — The generalized Gauss–Newton method is a generalization of the least squares method originally described by Carl Friedrich Gauss and of Newton s method due to Isaac Newton to the case of constrained nonlinear least squares problems … Wikipedia
Gauss–Newton algorithm — The Gauss–Newton algorithm is a method used to solve non linear least squares problems. It can be seen as a modification of Newton s method for finding a minimum of a function. Unlike Newton s method, the Gauss–Newton algorithm can only be used… … Wikipedia
Gauss-Krüger coordinate system — In cartography, the term Gauss Krüger, named after Carl Friedrich Gauss and Johann Heinrich Louis Krüger, is used in three slightly different ways. * Often, it is just a synonym for the transverse Mercator map projection. Another synonym is Gauss … Wikipedia
Gauss–Legendre algorithm — The Gauss–Legendre algorithm is an algorithm to compute the digits of pi;. It is notable for being rapidly convergent, with only 25 iterations producing 45 million correct digits of pi;. However, the drawback is that it is memory intensive and it … Wikipedia
Gauss-Seidel-Algorithmus — In der numerischen Mathematik ist das Gauß Seidel Verfahren oder Einzelschrittverfahren, (nach Carl Friedrich Gauß und Ludwig Seidel) ein Algorithmus zur näherungsweisen Lösung von linearen Gleichungssystemen. Es ist, wie das Jacobi Verfahren und … Deutsch Wikipedia
Gauss, Carl Friedrich — orig. Johann Friedrich Carl Gauss born April 30, 1777, Brunswick, Duchy of Brunswick died Feb. 23, 1855, Göttingen, Hanover German mathematician, astronomer, and physicist. Born to poor parents, he was a prodigy of astounding depth. By his early… … Universalium
Gauss' law for gravity — In physics, Gauss law for gravity, also known as Gauss flux theorem for gravity, is a law of physics which is essentially equivalent to Newton s law of universal gravitation. Its form is mathematically similar to Gauss law for electricity; in… … Wikipedia
Gauss's law — In physics, Gauss s law, also known as Gauss s flux theorem, is a law relating the distribution of electric charge to the resulting electric field. It is one of the four Maxwell s equations, which form the basis of classical electrodynamics, and… … Wikipedia